Feralis Biology Notes a. Comprehensive and easy to read for reviewing basic Biology b. When S/V is small, exchange is hard leads to cell death or division to increase SA, activates proteins that regulate cell cycle by phosphorlation, plasma membrane has receptors for growth factors that stimulate cell for division, cells stop dividing when surround cells density reaches maximum, most cells only divide when attached to an external surface such as neighboring cells or side of culture dish, genetic material on a chromosome for a trait, variance of genes such as different color, location on chromosome where gene is located, a pair of chromosomes that contain same genetic material (gene for gene), one member of each chromosome pair migrates to an opposite pole so that each gamete is haploid (each gamete has only one copy of each allele), migration of homologues within one pair of homologous chromosomes does not influence the migration of homologues of other homologous pairs, both inherited alleles are completely expressed, ex: blood types have three possible alleles: codominant A and B and then type O, one gene affects phenotypic expression of 2nd gene, single gene has more than 1 phenotypic expression, the interaction of many genes to shape a single phenotype with continuous variation, two or more genes that reside on the same chromosome and thus cannot separate independently because they are physically connected (inherited together), can be influenced by sex of individual carrying trait, probability of organism with a specific genotype will express a particular phenotype, term describing the variation of phenotype for a specific genotype, during embryonic development in female mammals, one of the two X chromosomes does not uncoil into chromatin, failure of one/more chromosome pairs to separate during mitosis or meiosis, fraction of body cells have extra or missing chromosome, all chromosomes undergo meitoic nondisjunction and produce gametes with twice the number of chromosomes, single nucleotide changes causing substition, insertion or deletion, purine to purine OR pyrimidine to pyrimidine, puring to pyrimidine OR pyrimidine to purine, genome with extra/missing chromosome, often caused by nondisjunction, spontaneous or induced (mutagenic agents, X rays), cosmic rays, xrays, UV rays, radioactivity, chemical compounds includen colchicine (inhibits spindle formation causing polyploidy), mustard gas, are found in mitochondria and chloroplasts, enzyme that attaches the end of template strand and extends the template strand by adding short sequence RNA template, creation of RNA molecules from DNA template, C-C-A-3' end attaches to amino acid and the other portion is the anticodon which pairs with the codon in mRNA, nucleolus is an assemblage of DNA actively being transcribed into this. rate of forward and reverse reactions is the same = 0 net production, have both an active site for substrate binding and an allosteric site for binding of an allosteric effector (activator, inhibitor), substance that mimics the substrate inhibits the enzyme by binding at the active site, substance inhibits enzyme by binding elsewhere than active site, substrate still binds but reaction is prevented from completing, enzyme inhibitor binds only to the formed E-S complex, preventing formation of product, enzyme becomes more receptive to addition substrate molecules after one substrate molecule attaches to an active site, small, uncharged, nonpolar molecules and hydrophobic molecules can freely pass across membrane, lipids and proteins are free to move back and forth fluidly, provide passageway through membrane for hydrophilic substances, glycoproteins due to oligosaccharides attached, allow passage of certain ions and small polar molecules, bind to specific molecules, protein changes shape, molecule is passed, can use ATP to transport materials across, attach cells to neighboring cells, provides anchors for internal filaments and tubules (stability), binding site for hormones and other trigger molecules, adds rigidity to membrane of animal cells under normal conditions, carbohydrate coat that covers outer face of cell wall of some bacteria and outer face of plasma membrane, irregular shaped region within the cell of prokaryote that contains all/most genetic material, an area where metabolic activity and transport occur, two subunits produced inside the nucleous moved to the cytoplasm, vesicles produced from golgi that contain digestive enzymes, transport of various substances in vescicles, break down substances, fatty acid and amino acids, provide support for maintaining cell shape, made up of actin and involved in cell motility, move materials between organelles and the plasma membrane, temporary receptacles of nutrients; merge with lysosomes which break food down, large, occupy most of plant cell interior, plants store starch, pigments and toxic substances, in single-celled organisms that collect and pump excess water out of cells (prevents bursting), found in plants, fungi, protists and bacteria, found in animals in area between adjacent cells, microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments, brownian movement - particles move due to kinetic energy, diffusion - if cell in close contact with external environment, can suffice for food/respiration needs. Accelerate your learning with our unique tracking software. self-replication RNA molecules were precursors to current life. From comprehensive content and high-quality videos that mimic the DAT, to advanced generators and software that analyse and pinpoint areas of weakness. Feralis Biology Notes Feralis notes are a summary of the AP Bio book and are considered the “bible” of Biology for the DAT. Everything you need to get a great bio score, nothing you don’t. Groups of 2 or more atoms held together by chemical bonds (due to electron interactions), transfer of electrons from one atom to another (different electronegativities), electrons are shared between atoms (similar electronegativities), equal sharing of electrons (identical electronegativity), unequal sharing of electrons (different elecectronegativity and formation of a dipole), weak bond between molecules with a hydrogen attached to a highly electronegative atom and is attracted to a negative charge on another molecule (has to be F, O or N), excellent solvent, diploes of H20 break up charged ionic molecules, degree in which a substance changes temperature in response to gain/loss of heat. genetic recombination during meiosis and sexual reproduction originates from 3 events: 1. Toggle navigation. With DATBooster, preparing for the DAT has never been this efficient or affordable. View the Bootcamp Biology Notes. Hi! The most High-Yield Questions available for the DAT. circular body pattern, cavity that develops from tissue derived from the mesoderm germ layer, body parts may be the same and repeat OR are modified and adopt specialized functions, Exoskeleton, jointed appendages, coelomates,three pairs of legs, chitonous exoskeleton, more species than any other phylum combined, metamorphosis, Exoskeleton, jointed appendages, coelomates, four pairs of legs, land habitats, Exoskeleton, jointed appendages, coelomates, aquatic habitats. 5. 700+ High-Quality DAT Strategy Videos that show you how to beat the DAT step-by-step. Hi! 4000+ High-Yield Questions. Feralis Notes: This is a document of notes including some images of everything that you need to know for Biology on the DAT. used for transport of materials b/n cells and interstitial fluid, completely encircles each cell creating a seal that prevents passage of materials between cells, narrow tunnels between PLANT CELLS - ONLY PLANT, present when there is a high level of stress being placed on individual cells, all organisms EXCEPT bacteria, cyanobacteria and archaebacteria, have plasma membrane, DNA molecule, ribosomes, cytoplasm and cell wall, movement of transports AGAINST their concentration gradients requiring energy, an oxidative, exergonic process (delta G= -686 kcal/mol), entry of air into lungs and gas exchange between alveoli and blood, exchange of gas between blood and the cells + intracellular respiration processes, in the presence of O2 (glycolysis, pyruvate decarboxylation, krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation), decomposition of glucose into pyruvate in the cytosol, also referred to as Citric Acid Cycle(CAC)/Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TAC), process of ADP --> ATP from NADH and FADH2, occurs in human muscle cells, other microorganisms, overall rxn: 6CO2 + 6H20 --> C6H12O6 + 6O2, electrons trapped by P680 are energized by light, two excited electrons passed are accepted here, electron transport chain (noncylclic photophosphorylation), consists of PSII complex which containes proteins (cytochrome and cofactor Fe2+), two electrons move down chain - lose energy, electron transport chain terminates with this (P700), replenishes ATP when calvin cycle consumes it, 12 ATP + 12 NADPH converts 12 PGA --> 12 G3P (or 12 PGAL), 2 remaining G3P are used to build glucose, light dependent and light independent reactions occur, fixation of oxygen by rubisco (rubisco is not efficient, will fix both O2 and CO2 at the same time if both present), nucleus disassembles, nucleolus disappears, chromatin condenses into chromosomes and nuclear envelope breaks down, chromosomes line up single file at center, microtubules shorten, each chromosome is pulled apart into two chromatids, nuclear division, nuclear envelop develops, begins after mitosis and cytokinesis are complete, cell increases in size, G1 checkpoint ensures everything is ready for DNA synthesis, second molecule of DNA replicated fromt he first, provides sister chromatids - DNA Synthesis, rapid cell growth, preparation for genetic material for cellular division, Prophase 1, Metaphase 1, Anaphase 1, Telophase 1, homologous chromosomes pair at plate, migrate to opposite poles, nucleus disassembles, nucleolus disappears and nuclear envelop breaks down, chromatin condenses, spindle develops, homologous pairs are spread cross metaphase plate, homologues within tetrads uncouple and pulled to opposite sided (disjunction), chromosomes spread across metaphase plate and sister chromatids separate and migrate to opposite poltes, nuclear envelope disappears and spindle develops, chromosomes align on plate but with half the number of chromosomes (no extra copy), each chromosome is pulled into 2 separate chromatids and migrate to opposite poles of cell, nuclear envelope reappears and cytokinesis occurs.
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